Satellite Communication : Block Diagram,Types, Working & Its Applications (2022)

The utilization of Satellite Communication worldwide has become common and everywhere in some different applications such as DTH Broadcasting, Television, DSNG, and VSAT to develop unique facilities in terms of outreach as well as coverage. For the past three decades, this technology is used in a large number of commercial as well as common applications. The prospective of the technology for public applications continues to attract ISRO & hard works are influencing the benefits of technology for the betterment of mankind.

Significant proposals followed by ISRO to societal growth comprise telemedicine, education, DMS (Disaster Management System) & VRC (Village Resource Centre) programs. The space technology potential for national development applications is vast.
The world’s first artificial satellite was launched by the Soviet Union namely Sputnik-1 in the year 1957. After eighteen 18 years, an artificial satellite like Aryabhata was launched by India in the year 1975.

What is Satellite Communication?

A satellite definition is a small object that rotates in the region of a larger object within space. The best example of a natural satellite of the globe is the moon. We know that communication is nothing but the sharing of data among two or more entities using any transmission channel or medium. Alternatively, communication can also be defined as transmitting, receiving & processing the data.

So, if communication occurs between any two stations on the earth with a satellite, then it is known as satellite communication. In this kind of communication, electromagnetic waves are utilized like carrier signals to carry the data like audio, voice, video among space and ground.

Need of Satellite Communication

In earlier communication, there are two types of propagation is used up to some distance like ground wave propagation and skywave propagation. The bandwidth used by Ground wave propagation is up to 30MHz frequencies. This kind of communication uses the conditions of the troposphere of the globe.

The bandwidth used by skywave propagation mainly ranges from 30 to 40 MHz with the properties of the ionosphere of the earth. The highest station distance is restricted to 1500KM simply in both the propagations. So, satellite communication conquers this drawback. By providing long-distance communication.

Satellite Communication : Block Diagram,Types, Working & Its Applications (1)

Satellite Communication Working

(Video) Satellite communication!block diagram of satellite communication

As the satellites situate at a certain height from the earth, then communication occurs in between two earth stations simply through satellite. So, it conquers the drawback of communication between two stations on the earth because of the curvature of the earth.

Block Diagram

Satellite communications are related to the space mirrors because they assist us in activating the signals like internet data, radio & TV from one face of the earth to another face.

The block diagram of the satellite communication system includes the following. This satellite communication system can be explained through three blocks namely uplink, transponder, and downlink where these components of the satellite communication system & their working are discussed below.

Satellite Communication : Block Diagram,Types, Working & Its Applications (2)

(Video) Satellite Communication - Introduction to Satellite Communication

Block Diagram of Satellite Communication

Let us consider the signals from a TV. In the primary phase, the signal transmits from the television to the other face of the earth & first carries to the satellite from the earth station over the earth. So this kind of procedure is called an uplink.

The second stage is transponder like amplifiers, transmitters & radio receivers. The main function of a transponder is to boost the inward signal as well as to modify its frequency so that the leaving signals are not changed. Based on the incoming sources of signal, the transponders will change.

The final stage includes a downlink where the data is transmitted to the receiver end on the globe. It is significant to recognize that generally there is a single uplink & several downlinks.

Types of Satellite Communication

The classification of satellites can be done based on their functions because they are mainly launched into space to perform a specific task. So its design must fulfill its role. There are different types of satellite communication systems like communication, remote sensing, navigation, geocentric orbit type like LEO, HEO, MEO, GPS (global positioning system), GEOs(geostationary satellites), polar, ground, drone, smallsats, CubeSats, nanosats.

From the above-mentioned types of satellites, the artificial satellites are communication type because they communicate with receive signals which are received from earth station & again transmit to other earth station.

Satellite Communication Services

Satellite communication services can be classified into two categories like one-way communication and two-way communications.

(Video) Basic Block Diagram of Satellite Communication

One-way Satellite Communication

In this kind of communication, usually, the communication occurs in between either one earth station or several earth stations using a satellite like the transmitter of the first earth satellite to the receiver of the second earth satellite. Here the direction of signal transmission is unidirectional. So some frequently used one-way satellite communications are

  • Position services supplied by the radio
  • Tracking is an element of space operations services
  • Internet services occur through broadcasting satellites

Two-way Satellite Communication

In this kind of communication, the exchange of data can be done in between any two earth stations. The transmission of a signal can be done from the primary earth station to the next earth station so that there are two uplinks & downlinks that occur among the satellite & earth stations.

The communication services provided by the satellites are telecommunications, broadcasting, & data communications. Telecommunication services are telephone calls as well as different services provided to various telephone companies & mobile, wireless & mobile network providers.

Broadcasting services provided by TV & radio to the consumer are mobile broadcasting services whereas satellite TV or DTH services are received by households directly.

Data communications are used to transmit the data from one end to another. In various organizations, the information can be exchanged in between different locations which utilize satellites to assist the data transfer throughout the VSAT (very small aperture terminal) networks.

With the development of the Internet, a major quantity of Internet traffic travels throughout satellites to make the Internet service providers one of the main customers for satellite services.

Factors Affecting Performance

The satellite system performance is mainly associated with the radio signal’s type & its strength used among the satellite & transmitter mounted through the vessel.

(Video) Satellite Communication: Introduction, Working, Advantages, Disadvantages and Applications

The interrelated factors which determine the power requirements, as well as the size of the vessel transmitter, are power accessible within the satellite system & the level where the satellite system can focus on a geographical region.

The radio signal type used by transmitters is related to monitoring control & surveillance of fisheries in the microwave band is extremely reliable & fairly low-powered. The signal is not highly affected through the conditions of atmospheric.


The advantages of satellite communication include the following.

  • Circuit connections are simple
  • The circuit elasticity is outstanding.
  • The network can be controlled by the user.
  • Possibilities of broadcasting and more bandwidth
  • Each corner of the globe can be covered by using a satellite communication system.
  • Transmission cost is independent for coverage region
  • Coverage area is more as compared to the terrestrial systems


The disadvantages of a satellite communication system include the following.

  • A satellite launching into orbits is an expensive procedure.
  • Satellite systems propagation delay is more as compared to conventional terrestrial systems.
  • More free space loss
  • Initial expenditure is costly.
  • Propagation & interference.
  • There is a change of frequency blockage or jamming
  • If any issue happens within a satellite system then providing repairing activities is difficult.


The applications of satellite communication systems include the following.

  • TV
  • Telephone
  • Monitoring of Weather Condition and Forecasting
  • Military
  • Navigations
  • Amateur Radio
  • TV broadcasting like DTH ( Direct to Home)
  • Radio Broadcasting
  • Remote sensing applications
  • Disaster Management
  • Voice communications & Radio Broadcasting
  • Internet Access
  • Digital cinema
  • Internet applications to provide the application of internet connection for GPS applications, data transfer, Internet surfing, and many more.

Please refer to this link to know more about GPS MCQs.

Please refer to this link to know more about Digital Communication MCQs& Moblie Communication MCQs.

(Video) Block diagram of satellite communication system || Satellite communication blocks

Thus, Satellite communication systems are used in vessels, where normally mobiles do not work properly so satellite phones are useful in communication. Satellite phones, Satellite TV, radio, and the internet can operate on the principle of satellite communication. So, this kind of communication is mainly useful in remote regions wherever the facilities of broadband do not work properly. Here is a question for you, what are the different radio frequency bands used by commercial satellites?


What are the different types of satellite communication system? ›

There are three types of communication services that satellites provide: telecommunications, broadcasting, and data communications.

What do you understand by satellite communication explain its block diagram? ›

A communication satellite is an artificial satellite that transmits the signal via a transponder by creating a channel between the transmitter and the receiver at different Earth locations. Telephone, radio, television, internet, and military applications use satellite communications.

What are the applications of satellite communication? ›

  • Telecommunication.
  • Tele-Medicine.
  • Tele-Education.
  • Mobile Satellite Services.
  • Radio Networking.
  • Village Resource Centre.
  • Satellite Aided Search and Rescue.
  • Satellite Navigation Programme.

How many types of satellites are there? ›

There are two different types of satellites – natural and man-made. Examples of natural satellites are the Earth and Moon. The Earth rotates around the Sun and the Moon rotates around the Earth. A man-made satellite is a machine that is launched into space and orbits around a body in space.

What are the two types of communication satellite? ›

There are two major classes of communications satellites, passive and active.

What is the working principle of satellite? ›

The fundamental principle to be understood concerning satellites is that a satellite is a projectile. That is to say, a satellite is an object upon which the only force is gravity. Once launched into orbit, the only force governing the motion of a satellite is the force of gravity.

What is satellite communication and how does it work? ›

Satellites communicate by using radio waves to send signals to the antennas on the Earth. The antennas then capture those signals and process the information coming from those signals.

What is the importance of satellite communication? ›

Satellite communications play a vital role in the global telecommunications system. Approximately 2,000 artificial satellites orbiting Earth relay analog and digital signals carrying voice, video, and data to and from one or many locations worldwide.

What are the three applications of satellite? ›

Satellites can be used for many different applications such as communication, broadcasting, navigation, weather forecasting etc.

What is a satellite state any four application of communication satellite? ›

The communication satellite is an artificial satellite that sends and boost radio telecommunications via a transponder. Communication satellite is used in television, telephone, internet, radio and military applications.

What are 3 uses of satellites? ›

What are satellites used for? (and why they matter)
  • Earth Observation and Imagery. Satellites can provide an image of the surface of the Earth. ...
  • Communication. Satellites can enable communication services on the ground. ...
  • Navigation. ...
  • Navigation. ...
  • Communication.

What are the 5 types of satellites? ›

Satellites can be divided into five principal types: research, communications, weather, navigational, and applications.

What are the nine different types of satellites? ›

There are nine different types of satellites i.e. Communications Satellite, Remote Sensing Satellite, Navigation Satellite, LEO, MEO, HEO, GPS, GEOs, Drone Satellite, Ground Satellite, Polar Satellite.

What is the size of satellite? ›

Satellites vary in size. Some cube satellites are as small as 10 cm. Some communication satellites are about 7 m long and have solar panels that extend another 50 m. The largest artificial satellite is the International Space Station (ISS).

What are the three types of orbits? ›

There are essentially three types of Earth orbits: high Earth orbit, medium Earth orbit, and low Earth orbit. Many weather and some communications satellites tend to have a high Earth orbit, farthest away from the surface.

How many types of satellites are there in India? ›

Today, India has one of the largest constellations of remote sensing satellites in operation. Currently, eleven operational satellites are in orbit – RESOURCESAT-1 and 2, CARTOSAT-1, 2, 2A, 2B, RISAT-1 and 2, OCEANSAT-2, Megha-Tropiques and SARAL.
Types of Satellites Launched by ISRO.
Launch DateJan 10, 2007
Launch Mass550 kg
Launch VehiclePSLV-C7
5 more columns
29 Jun 2016

How many communication satellites are there? ›

Communications satellites are used for television, telephone, radio, internet, and military applications. As of 1 January 2021, there are 2,224 communications satellites in Earth orbit.

What is uplink and downlink in satellite? ›

In satellite telecommunication, a downlink is the link from a satellite down to one or more ground stations or receivers, and an uplink is the link from a ground station up to a satellite. Some companies sell uplink and downlink services to television stations, corporations, and to other telecommunication carriers.

What are the components of satellite? ›

Components of Satellite
  • Antennas. In a satellite system, antennas play a key role in transmitting and receiving signals from Earth.
  • Command & Data Handling. ...
  • Guidance & Stabilization. ...
  • Housing. ...
  • Power. ...
  • Thermal Control. ...
  • Transponders. ...
  • Services Provided by Satellites.
2 Jun 2021

What is the basic principle of satellite communication? ›

Satellite communications involves four steps: An uplink Earth station or other ground equipment transmits the desired signal to the satellite. The satellite amplifies the incoming signal and changes the frequency. The satellite transmits the signal back to Earth.

Which frequency is used in satellite communication? ›

C-band (4–8 GHz)

Primarily used for satellite communications, for full-time satellite TV networks or raw satellite feeds.

What is the difference between active and passive satellite? ›

Active satellite can generate power for its own operation. It is known as active repeater due to its functionality. Passive Satellite : The passive satellite is a reflector which receives the signal from the transmitting earth station and scatters the signal in all the directions.

What are the elements of satellite communication? ›

Antennas: Satellite antenna systems are used to receive and transmit signals to and from Earth. Command and Data Handling: The operational heart of a satellite, command and control systems monitor every aspect of the satellite and receive commands from Earth for operation.

What are advantages of satellite? ›

The advantages of satellite include covering over a big geographical part, high bandwidth, and lower price over longer distances. The disadvantages of satellite include delay in propagation, noise interference and large initial cost.

Which is the application of satellite technology? ›

The main applications of satellites are mainly categorized as, Weather forecast used to observations from which to analyses the current state of the atmosphere. Broadcasting services include radio and television delivered directly to the consumer and mobile broadcasting services.

What are the four applications of artificial satellite? ›

communications – satellite television and phone calls; Earth observation - including weather forecasting, tracking storms and pollution, spying and satellite photography; navigation - including the Global Positioning System (GPS); astronomy – looking into outer space from our solar system.

What is the application of satellite system Mcq? ›

Satellite Communications MCQ Question 4 Detailed Solution
Modes of PropagationApplication
1Ground WaveSubmarine Communication AM, FM and TV Broadcasting
2Space/Line of Sight wavesSatellite Communication Mobile Communication
3Sky WavesMicrowave Link Radar Communication
9 Nov 1970

What is communication satellite state any two application of communication satellite? ›

Communications satellites are commonly used for mobile phone signals, weather tracking, or broadcasting television programs. Communications satellites are artificial satellites that relay receive signals from an earth station and then retransmits the signal to other earth stations.

What are satellite system and its application in mobile computing? ›

GMSS stands for Global Mobile Satellite System. An artificial body which is placed in an orbit around the earth for the purpose of communication is known as Communication satellite. GMSS is a system which consists of various artificial communication satellites orbiting around the earth for the purpose of communication.

Who invented satellite? ›

Fifty years ago, on October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, the first man-made satellite, shocking the American public and beginning the Space Age. People had been dreaming of space travel for some time before the launch of Sputnik.

How many satellites do we use? ›

Uses of Satellites
Astronomy satellite- e.g. Hubble Space Telescope
Navigation satellites- e.g. Navstar
Reconaissance or spy satellites- e.g. Kennan, Big Bird, Lacrosse
Remote Sensing satellites- e.g. Radarsat
Search and Rescue satellites- e.g. Cospas-Sarsat
4 more rows

What was the first satellite? ›

On Oct. 4, 1957, Sputnik 1 successfully launched and entered Earth's orbit. Thus, began the space age.

What is geostationary satellite and polar satellite? ›

Polar orbiting satellites provide imagery and atmospheric soundings of temperature and moisture data over the entire Earth. Geostationary satellites are in orbit 22,000 miles above the equator, spin at the same rate of the Earth and constantly focus on the same area.

How do you classify of satellites? ›

Answer–: Satellites are the objects that orbit the Earth, Sun, and most of the colossal body. Answer – Satellites based on their uses can be divided into five types. These are- Communication Satellite, Weather Satellite, Research Satellite, Application Satellites, and Navigational Satellites.

What are the types of remote sensing satellites? ›

Satellites can be classified by their orbital geometry and timing. Three types of orbits are typically used in remote sensing satellites, such as geostationary, equatorial, and sun-synchronous orbits.

Is satellite used for Internet? ›

Satellite Internet service provides high-speed Internet access to areas where wired, fiber and cable options are inaccessible. Satellites are used to deliver broadband Internet services to hard-to-reach users in the under-served regions.

What is satellite system in ICT? ›

A satellite is basically a self-contained communications system with the ability to receive signals from Earth and to retransmit those signals back with the use of a transponder—an integrated receiver and transmitter of radio signals.

What are satellite systems explain? ›

A satellite system is a set of gravitationally bound objects in orbit around a planetary mass object (incl. sub-brown dwarfs and rogue planets) or minor planet, or its barycenter.

What is satcom system? ›

Airborne radio telephone communication via a satellite is usually abbreviated to the term SATCOM. Use of satellites for this purpose complements satellite-based navigation capability. Aircraft onboard equipment for SATCOM includes a satellite data unit, a high power amplifier and an antenna with a steerable beam.

What is VSAT system? ›

A very small aperture terminal (VSAT) is a small-sized earth station used in the transmit/receive of data, voice and video signals over a satellite communication network, excluding broadcast television.

What are 5 things satellites are used for? ›

Uses of Satellites
Astronomy satellite- e.g. Hubble Space Telescope
Navigation satellites- e.g. Navstar
Reconaissance or spy satellites- e.g. Kennan, Big Bird, Lacrosse
Remote Sensing satellites- e.g. Radarsat
Search and Rescue satellites- e.g. Cospas-Sarsat
4 more rows

What is the importance of satellite communication? ›

Satellite communications play a vital role in the global telecommunications system. Approximately 2,000 artificial satellites orbiting Earth relay analog and digital signals carrying voice, video, and data to and from one or many locations worldwide.

What is the importance of satellite? ›

From space, they provide information and services to support global communications, the economy, security and defence, safety and emergency management, the environment and health. As technology advances, the potential of satellites will undoubtedly continue to grow.

Which system is used in satellites? ›

Comparison of systems
Period12.63 h (12 h 38 min)
Rev./S. day17/9 (1.888...)
SatellitesBeiDou-3: 28 operational (24 MEO, 3 IGSO, 1 GSO) 5 in orbit validation 2 GSO planned 20H1 BeiDou-2: 15 operational 1 in commissioning
Frequency1.561098 GHz (B1) 1.589742 GHz (B1-2) 1.20714 GHz (B2) 1.26852 GHz (B3)
7 more rows

What are the components of satellite? ›

Components of Satellite
  • Antennas. In a satellite system, antennas play a key role in transmitting and receiving signals from Earth.
  • Command & Data Handling. ...
  • Guidance & Stabilization. ...
  • Housing. ...
  • Power. ...
  • Thermal Control. ...
  • Transponders. ...
  • Services Provided by Satellites.
2 Jun 2021

What are characteristics of satellite system? ›

A satellite typically has a large footprint, which can be up to 34% of the earth's surface covered, and therefore it is difficult to reuse frequencies. The global coverage of small mobile phones and data transmission typically cause high latency in the range of about 275 ms.

What frequency is SATCOM? ›

Satellite Communication (satcom) is based on a specific range of frequencies. The useable radio spectrum ranges from 1Ghz to 300Ghz, where its use for communications ends as the signal becomes infrared, X-Ray and visible light. For maritime satcom, we use the frequencies from 1Ghz up to approx. 30Ghz.

What is VSAT and its advantages? ›

A VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal), also known as a micro-terminal, refers to a wide range of remote terminals that are small in size but which nevertheless allow access to a larger data network. A VSAT allows users to access and manage data in real time and comes with many applications in finance.

Who invented VSAT? ›

In the mid-1980s, a group of engineers including Pradman Kaul, president of Hughes, created the two-way Ku-band VSAT, a breakthrough solution that held the promise of commercializing satellite enterprise networks.

What is satellite and VSAT? ›

VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) is a satellite communications system that serves home and business users. A VSAT end user needs a box that interfaces between the user's computer and an outside antenna with a transceiver. The tranceiver receives or sends a signal to a satellite transponder in the sky.


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