Maya Angelou | Poetry Foundation (2022)

An acclaimed American poet, storyteller, activist, and autobiographer, Maya Angelou was born Marguerite Johnson in St. Louis, Missouri. Angelou had a broad career as a singer, dancer, actress, composer, and Hollywood’s first female black director, but became most famous as a writer, editor, essayist, playwright, and poet. As a civil rights activist, Angelou worked for Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X. She was also an educator and served as the Reynolds professor of American Studies at Wake Forest University. By 1975, wrote Carol E. Neubauer in Southern Women Writers: The New Generation, Angelou was recognized “as a spokesperson for… all people who are committed to raising the moral standards of living in the United States.” She served on two presidential committees, forGerald Fordin 1975 and forJimmy Carterin 1977. In 2000, Angelou was awarded theNational Medal of Artsby PresidentBill Clinton. In 2010, she was awarded thePresidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honor in the U.S., by PresidentBarack Obama. Angelou was awarded over 50 honorary degrees before her death.

Angelou’s most famous work, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (1969), deals with her early years in Long Beach, St. Louis and Stamps, Arkansas, where she lived with her brother and paternal grandmother. In one of its most evocative (and controversial) moments, Angelou describes how she was first cuddled then raped by her mother’s boyfriend when she was just seven years old. When the man was murdered by her uncles for his crime, Angelou felt responsible, and stopped talking. Angelou remained mute for five years, but developed a love for language. She read Black authors like Langston Hughes, W. E. B. Du Bois, and Paul Lawrence Dunbar, as well as canonical works by William Shakespeare, Charles Dickens, and Edgar Allan Poe. When Angelou was twelve and a half, Mrs. Flowers, an educated African American woman, finally got her to speak again. Mrs. Flowers, as Angelou recalled in her children’s book Mrs. Flowers: A Moment of Friendship (1986), emphasized the importance of the spoken word, explained the nature of and importance of education, and instilled in her a love of poetry. Angelou graduated at the top of her eighth-grade class.

(Video) Listen: Dr. Maya Angelou Recites Her Poem "Phenomenal Woman" | SuperSoul Sunday | OWN

Angelou attended George Washington High School in San Francisco and took lessons in dance and drama on a scholarship at the California Labor School. When Angelou, just seventeen, graduated from high school and gave birth to a son, Guy, she began to work as the first African American and first female street car conductor in San Francisco. As she explained in Singin’ and Swingin’ and Gettin’ Merry like Christmas (1976), the third of her autobiographies, she also “worked as a shake dancer in night clubs, fry cook in hamburger joints, dinner cook in a Creole restaurant and once had a job in a mechanic’s shop, taking the paint off cars with my hands.” Angelou married a white ex-sailor, Tosh Angelos, in 1950. After they separated, Angelou continued her study of dance in New York City, returning to San Francisco to sing in the Purple Onion cabaret and garnering the attention of talent scouts. From 1954 to 1955, she was a member of the cast of a touring production of Porgy and Bess. During the late 1950s, Angelou sang in West Coast and Hawaiian nightclubs, before returning to New York to continue her stage career.

Angelou joined the Harlem Writers Guild in the late 1950s and met James Baldwin and other important writers. It was during this time that Angelou had the opportunity to hear Dr. Martin Luther King speak. Inspired by his message, she decided to become a part of the struggle for civil rights. She was offered a position as the northern coordinator for Dr. King’s SCLC. Following her work for Dr. King, Angelou moved to Cairo with her son, and, in 1962, to Ghana in West Africa. She worked as a freelance writer and was a feature editor at the African Review. When Angelou returned to the United States in the mid-1960s, she was encouraged by author James Baldwin and Robert Loomis, an editor at Random House, to write an autobiography. Initially, Angelou declined the offers, but eventually changed her mind and wrote I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. The book chronicles Angelou’s childhood and ends with the birth of her son. It won immediate success and was nominated for a National Book Award.

(Video) Champions of Hope: The Dr. Maya Angelou Foundation

I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings is the first of Angelou’s six autobiographies. It is widely taught in schools, though it has faced controversy over its portrayal of race, sexual abuse and violence. Angelou’s use of fiction-writing techniques like dialogue and plot in her autobiographies was innovative for its time and helped, in part, to complicate the genre’s relationship with truth and memory. Though her books are episodic and tightly-crafted, the events seldom follow a strict chronology and are arranged to emphasize themes. Other volumes include Gather Together in My Name (1974), which begins when Angelou is seventeen and a new mother; Singin’ and Swingin’ and Gettin’ Merry like Christmas, an account of her tour in Europe and Africa with Porgy and Bess; The Heart of a Woman (1981), a description of Angelou’s acting and writing career in New York and her work for the civil rights movement; and All God’s Children Need Traveling Shoes (1986), which recounts Angelou’s travels in West Africa and her decision to return, without her son, to America.

It took Angelou fifteen years to write the final volume of her autobiography, A Song Flung up to Heaven (2002). The book covers four years, from the time Angelou returned from Ghana in 1964 through the moment when she sat down at her mother’s table and began to write I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings in 1968. Angelou hesitated so long to start the book and took so long to finish it, she told Knight Ridder/Tribune News Service interviewer Sherryl Connelly, because so many painful things happened to her, and to the entire African-American community, in those four years. “I didn’t know how to write it,” she said. “I didn’t see how the assassination of Malcolm [X], the Watts riot, the breakup of a love affair, then [the assassination of Dr.] Martin [Luther] King [Jr.], how I could get all that loose with something uplifting in it.” A Song Flung up to Heaven deals forthrightly with these events, and “the poignant beauty of Angelou’s writing enhances rather than masks the candor with which she addresses the racial crisis through which America was passing,” Wayne A. Holst wrote in Christian Century.

(Video) 'Still I Rise' by Maya Angelou (Live performance)

Angelou was also a prolific and widely-read poet, and her poetry has often been lauded more for its depictions of Black beauty, the strength of women, and the human spirit; criticizing the Vietnam War; demanding social justice for all—than for its poetic virtue. Yet Just Give Me a Cool Drink of Water ‘fore I Diiie, which was published in 1971, was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize in 1972. According to Carol Neubauer in Southern Women Writers, “the first twenty poems describe the whole gamut of love, from the first moment of passionate discovery to the first suspicion of painful loss.” In other poems, “Angelou turns her attention to the lives of black people in America from the time of slavery to the rebellious 1960s. Her themes deal broadly with the painful anguish suffered by blacks forced into submission, with guilt over accepting too much, and with protest and basic survival.”

As Angelou wrote her autobiographies and poems, she continued her career in film and television. She was the first Black woman to have a screenplay (Georgia, Georgia) produced in 1972. She was honored with a nomination for an Emmy award for her performance in Roots in 1977. In 1979, Angelou helped adapt her book, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, for a television movie of the same name. Angelou wrote the poetry for the 1993 film Poetic Justice and played the role of Aunt June. She also played Lelia Mae in the 1993 television film There Are No Children Here and appeared as Anna in the feature film How to Make an American Quilt in 1995.

(Video) And Still I Rise

One source of Angelou’s fame in the early 1990s was President Bill Clinton’s invitation to write and read an inaugural poem. Americans all across the country watched as she read “On the Pulse of Morning,” which begins “A Rock, a River, a Tree” and calls for peace, racial and religious harmony, and social justice for people of different origins, incomes, genders, and sexual orientations. It recalls the civil rights movement and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s famous “I have a dream” speech as it urges America to “Give birth again / To the Dream” of equality. Angelou challenged the new administration and all Americans to work together for progress: “Here, on the pulse of this new day, / You may have the grace to look up and out / And into your sister’s eyes, and into / Your brother’s face, your country /And say simply / Very simply / With hope—Good morning.”

(Video) Listen to Dr. Maya Angelou's take on the creative process behind writing

During the early 1990s, Angelou wrote several books for children, including Life Doesn’t Frighten Me (1993), which also featured the work of Jean-Michel Basquiat; My Painted House, My Friendly Chicken, and Me (1994), and Kofi and His Magic (1996), both collaborations with the photographer Margaret Courtney-Clark. Angelou’s poetry collections include The Complete Collected Poems of Maya Angelou (1994) and Phenomenal Woman (1995), a collection of four poems that takes its title from a poem which originally appeared in Cosmopolitan magazine in 1978. The poem’s narrator describes the physical and spiritual characteristics and qualities that make her attractive. Angelou also wrote occasional poems, including A Brave Startling Truth (1995), which commemorated the founding of the United Nations, and Amazing Peace (2005), a poem written for the White House Christmas tree-lighting ceremony.

Angelou published multiple collections of essays. Wouldn’t Take Nothing for My Journey Now (1993) contains declarations, complaints, memories, opinions, and advice on subjects ranging from faith to jealousy. Genevieve Stuttaford, writing in Publishers Weekly, described the essays as “quietly inspirational pieces.” Anne Whitehouse of the New York Times Book Review observed that the book would “appeal to readers in search of clear messages with easily digested meanings.” Even the Stars Look Lonesome (1997) is the sister volume, a book of “candid and lovingly crafted homilies” to “sensuality, beauty, and black women” said Donna Seaman in Booklist. Letter to my Daughter was published in 2008.

(Video) It Really Rocked Me from Maya Angelou

FAQs

What is Maya Angelou most famous quote? ›

"Do the best you can until you know better. Then when you know better, do better."

What does each stanza in still I rise mean? ›

The first stanza of the poem starts with stating how words have no power over her. The second stanza tells about the confidence and a positive attitude that the narrator posesses. The third stanza is the comparison of certainty of nature with her resilience and determination to rise against challenges.

What is the meaning of still I rise? ›

Still I Rise” is primarily about self-respect and confidence. In the poem, Angelou reveals how she will overcome anything through her self-esteem. She shows how nothing can get her down. She will rise to any occasion and nothing, not even her skin color, will hold her back. “You may write me down in history.

Does my sexiness upset you does it come as a surprise? ›

Does my sexiness upset you? Does it come as a surprise that I dance as if I have diamonds at the meeting of my thighs? Out of the huts of history's shame, I rise. Up from a past rooted in pain, I rise.

What is Maya Angelou most famous text? ›

Angelou's most famous work, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (1969), deals with her early years in Long Beach, St. Louis and Stamps, Arkansas, where she lived with her brother and paternal grandmother.

What is Maya Angelou message to the world? ›

Maya Angelou taught a message of being the best person you can be – that means chasing your dreams and believing in your one true vision. Do it with compassion, with kindness, and with insight. Go forth and let your solitary fantasy transform as many realities for the better.

What is the mood of the poem? ›

The mood of a poem is the emotion evoked in the reader by the poem itself. Mood is often confused with tone, which is the speaker's attitude toward the subject. Mood is created by diction, imagery, and sound devices.

What is the main message in Still I Rise quizlet? ›

The phrase 'Still I rise' is repeated several times. It reflects the idea that no matter what comes your way, she/AfricanAmericans will stand up and try again.

What is the lesson of the poem Still I Rise? ›

Still I Rise is about overcoming oppression with grace and pride, having no sympathy for the oppressors and giving to validity to the reasons for oppression.

Who is the speaker in the poem? ›

Just like fiction has a narrator, poetry has a speaker–someone who is the voice of the poem. Often times, the speaker is the poet. Other times, the speaker can take on the voice of a persona–the voice of someone else including animals and inanimate objects.

Why Is Still I Rise relevant today? ›

Although it speaks to systemic problems more broadly, the poem also emphasizes the individual strength needed to rise above these efforts to oppress, obscure and dehumanize. In today's America, it's an important message to hear. And what better way to remember such an iconic and important figure.

Why Maya Angelou is an inspiration? ›

A poet, singer, autobiographer, and civil rights activist, Maya Angelou inspires us with both the beauty and the call to action of her words. Her most famous work is I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, an autobiography about her childhood. The book is a testament to the need for resilience in the face of discrimination.

What is the girl carrying between the thighs in the poem purdah? ›

When someone is behind Purdah, people who were known earlier , “make different angles in the light, their eyes aslant”. Moreover, Purdah makes the women carry “between the thighs , a sense of sin”. This sin, on a primary level, is the sin of the conditions amid which a young girl grows in society.

What does bitter twisted lies mean? ›

" You may write me down in history with your bitter , twisted lies" Angelou is referring to how her ancestors were horribly and disgracefully mistreated in the past. " Just like moons and like suns / with the certainty of tides"

What does oil wells Pumping in my living room mean? ›

The “oil wells pumping in my living room” symbolizes her success. Maya Angelou notices that the people around her are “beset with bloom”, meaning to attack with hate, when she succeeds.

When I think about my self by Maya Angelou? ›

Summary. 'When I Think About Myself' by Maya Angelou is a moving poem in which the speaker alludes to the struggles in her life and the lives of her people. The speaker spends the poem creating allusions suggesting the nature of her life while also “laughing” at its facts.

What is Maya's most famous poem? ›

Still I Rise hails the indomitable spirit of Black people; and expresses faith that they will triumph despite adversity and racism. It is the most famous poem of Maya Angelou and it was also her favorite. She quoted it during interviews and often included it in her public readings.

How Maya Angelou changed the world? ›

She was the first female inaugural poet in U.S. presidential history. In 1993 Angelou recited her poem, "On the Pulse of Morning," for President Bill Clinton's inauguration. She became the first African American poet and first female poet to participate in a recitation for a U.S. president's inauguration.

What lessons did Maya Angelou learn? ›

Maya Angelou taught us that we all have potential to be great and do great things. “One isn't necessarily born with courage, but one is born with potential. Without courage, we cannot practice any other virtue with consistency. We can't be kind, merciful, generous, or honest.

What does Maya Angelou say about hope? ›

Maya Angelou once said, “Hope and fear cannot occupy the same space.

What is theme of the poem? ›

The poem's theme is a lesson about life or a comment about human nature. To determine the theme, begin by determining the core idea. Then check for features such as the structure, sounds, word choice, and any poetic devices throughout the poem.

What is the author's purpose in the poem? ›

An author's purpose is his reason for or intent in writing. An author's purpose may be to amuse the reader, to persuade the reader, to inform the reader, or to satirize a condition.

What does the poem teach? ›

POETRY HELPS YOU UNDERSTAND THE SIGNIFICANCE OF WORDS THEMSELVES. ... POETRY HELPS YOU UNDERSTAND YOURSELF. Explanation: if your question was what does the poetry teaches us.

Who is the speaker addressing in Still I Rise? ›

Throughout “Still I Rise,” the poem's speaker addresses an unknown “you.” At first glance, it may seem like this “you” could be anyone, but as we get deeper into the poem, it becomes clear that Angelou is addressing a specific type of person: anyone who despises or hurts Black people because of their racial identity.

Which statement express a theme of the poem Still I Rise? ›

The theme of the poem, "Still I Rise," is that women are good workers and satisfied to do just that. Roosevelt would not approve of Nelson Mandela's attempts to bring racial equality to South Africa.

What are the symbols used in the poem Still I Rise? ›

To Maya Angelou it symbolizes her strength and courage to stand up to everyone who tried to bring her down and showed racism toward her in life. To others reading, it reveals the ability of humans being able to get past feeling hurt while delivering a sarcastic response for everyone who treated the writer poorly.

What is the tone and mood of the poem Still I Rise? ›

Answer and Explanation: The mood of Maya Angelou's poem, 'Still I Rise', is inspirational. This is because the poem uses the theme of strength and resilience. The repetition of the line 'I rise' helps convey the mood and show the poetic voice as confident person willing to overcome obstacles.

Which would be the best description of the theme of the overall poem Still I Rise? ›

It's about a lady who is experiencing segregation. "You may shoot me with your words,You may cut me with your eyes,You may kill me with your hatefulness,But still, like air, I'll rise." She is saying that even though she's facing discrimination she will still overcome it.

How does the speaker use the phrase I rise or I'll rise? ›

What does the poem's speaker mean by the phrase”I'll rise”? Ans. The speaker means that she as a female and women all around will rise up to the occasion and defeat anything that is in their way.

What is the moral or message of the poem? ›

A moral is the meaning or message conveyed through a story. The moral is the meaning that the author wants the reader to walk away with. They can be found in every type of literature, from poetry to fiction and non-fiction prose. Usually, the moral is not stated clearly.

Who is speaking in the poem answer? ›

The speaker is the voice or "persona" of a poem. One should not assume that the poet is the speaker, because the poet may be writing from a perspective entirely different from his own, even with the voice of another gender, race or species, or even of a material object.

What is the speaker describing? ›

1. A speaker is a term used to describe the user who is giving vocal commands to a software program. 2. A computer speaker is an output hardware device that connects to a computer to generate sound. The signal used to produce the sound that comes from a computer speaker is created by the computer's sound card.

Is Still I Rise a protest poem? ›

A kind of protest poem which is defiant as well as celebratory, 'Still I Rise' is about the power of the human spirit to overcome discrimination and hardship, with Angelou specifically reflecting her attitudes as a black American woman.

What is the rhyme scheme of the poem Still I Rise? ›

1 Answer. The rhyme scheme starts off as 'A-B-C-B' until the last two verses where it changes to 'A-B-A-B-C-C' and the again for the last verse where it changes to 'A-B-A-B-C-C-B-B-B'.

Did Maya Angelou fight women's rights? ›

However, during such times, Maya Angelou became the prominent voice of the rising feminist movement. She wrote an autobiography called 'I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings' published in 1969.

What is so great about Maya Angelou? ›

Poet, dancer, singer, activist, and scholar Maya Angelou was a world-famous author. She was best known for her unique and pioneering autobiographical writing style. On April 4, 1928, Marguerite Ann Johnson, known to the world as Maya Angelou, was born in St.

What is Purdah who uses Purdah why is the girl in the poem asked to learn some shame? ›

The veil or 'Purdah' is used in the Islamic religion to conceal the body, which is nothing but a means to assert that women are weak and dependent. That is why they are required to be safeguarded and protected from the glaring lustful eyes of men.

How does the poet introduce herself in the poem an introduction? ›

How does Kamala Das introduce herself and her poetry in 'An Introduction? ' She introduces herself as “Indian,” “born in Malabar,” “very brown,” and as a speaker of three languages. Two, she says, she writes in, and one she dreams in.

How does the Pardah symbolize in the poem? ›

The purdah is also a metaphor for women seeking refuge and shrinking back into shells in order to be safe from harm and disapproval. The purdah also stands as an alienation from one's own self, where a girl is forced to do more than she feels what is expected of her.

What is the meaning of Still I Rise? ›

Still I Rise” is primarily about self-respect and confidence. In the poem, Angelou reveals how she will overcome anything through her self-esteem. She shows how nothing can get her down. She will rise to any occasion and nothing, not even her skin color, will hold her back. “You may write me down in history.

What does Shoulders falling down like teardrops mean? ›

The use of figurative language gives the readers a clear picture of what Maya means and usually conveys a strong emotion. When Maya says “Shoulders falling down like teardrops” we can get an image of drooping shoulders (like the shape of a tear) and the tear itself is associated with sadness.

What is the explicit meaning of Still I Rise? ›

Broadly speaking, the poem is an assertion of the dignity and resilience of marginalized people in the face of oppression. Because Angelou often wrote about blackness and black womanhood, "Still I Rise" can also be read more specifically as a critique of anti-black racism.

What do the oil wells symbolize? ›

Oil wells (symbol)

The speaker is suggesting that she is rich and powerful—not in a monetary sense, but rather in spirit. Her wealth of courage and determination make her untouchable and give her control over her life, just as a rich person with oil wells presumably has enough money to live as he or she pleases.

What does Just like moons and like suns mean? ›

In the 3rd stanza she says "Just like moons and like suns, with the certainty of tides, Just like hopes springing high, Still ill rise." the whole stanza is a simile comparing her confidence to high hopes and certainty's.

How does the repetition of the phrase I rise affect the tone and overall impact of the poem? ›

21) How does the repetition of the phrase, “I rise, “affect the tone and overall impact of the poem? Ans: The various forms of this refrain (“I'll rise,” “I rise”) give the poem a determined and triumphant tone. The Repetition of a phrase gives it emphasis, and that is exactly what the poet/speaker is doing here.

What is Maya Angelou most famous poem? ›

Still I Rise hails the indomitable spirit of Black people; and expresses faith that they will triumph despite adversity and racism. It is the most famous poem of Maya Angelou and it was also her favorite.

What was Maya Angelou first famous poem? ›

On the Pulse of Morning

Can I use a Maya Angelou quote? ›

If you wish to use any of Dr. Maya Angelou's literary works, musical works, photos, trademarks, quotes, artwork, video clips, film and television clips or any other copyrighted works, please seek permission by filling out this form. A representative from CMG Worldwide, the exclusive licensing agent for Dr.

Why did Maya stop talking? ›

Returning to her mother's care briefly at the age of seven, Angelou was raped by her mother's boyfriend. He was later jailed and then killed when released from jail. Believing that her confession of the trauma had a hand in the man's death, Angelou became mute for six years.

When I think about my self by Maya Angelou? ›

Summary. 'When I Think About Myself' by Maya Angelou is a moving poem in which the speaker alludes to the struggles in her life and the lives of her people. The speaker spends the poem creating allusions suggesting the nature of her life while also “laughing” at its facts.

Who said Still I Rise? ›

“With the certainty of tides, / Just like hopes springing high, / Still I'll rise.” Published July 18, 2019 Last updated July 20, 2022 This article is more than 2 years old.

Why Maya Angelou is an inspiration? ›

A poet, singer, autobiographer, and civil rights activist, Maya Angelou inspires us with both the beauty and the call to action of her words. Her most famous work is I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, an autobiography about her childhood. The book is a testament to the need for resilience in the face of discrimination.

What style of writing did Maya Angelou use? ›

Author's Style

Angelou's style has many similarities in her poetry and her prose. In both, she used a direct, conversational voice, inviting readers to share in her stories and her secrets. She also employed strong and compelling metaphors and similes.

How did Maya Angelou pronounce her name? ›

How to Pronounce Maya Angelou - YouTube

What are 5 positive quotes? ›

100 Inspirational Quotes
  • "When you have a dream, you've got to grab it and never let go." ...
  • "Nothing is impossible. ...
  • "There is nothing impossible to they who will try." ...
  • "The bad news is time flies. ...
  • "Life has got all those twists and turns. ...
  • "Keep your face always toward the sunshine, and shadows will fall behind you."
4 Sept 2022

What are 5 motivational quotes? ›

You can do it quotes
  • “Do the best you can. ...
  • “Do what you can, with what you have, where you are.” ―Theodore Roosevelt.
  • 'It's never too late to be what you might've been.” ―George Eliot.
  • “If you can dream it, you can do it.” ―Walt Disney.
  • “Trust yourself that you can do it and get it.” ―Baz Luhrmann.
24 May 2022

What is a strong woman quote? ›

A strong woman knows she has strength enough for the journey, but a woman of strength knows it is in the journey where she will become strong.” “I'd rather regret the risks that didn't work out than the chances I didn't take at all.” "You must love and care for yourself because that's when the best comes out.”

What does Maya Angelou say about hope? ›

Maya Angelou once said, “Hope and fear cannot occupy the same space.

What did Maya Angelou say about success? ›

Success is liking yourself, liking what you do, and liking how you do it.” "Courage is the most important of all virtues, because without courage, you cannot practice any of the other virtues consistently."

What does Maya Angelou say about love? ›

Love is that condition in the healing spirit so profound that it allows us to forgive," Dr. Angelou said during a SuperSoul Sunday episode with Oprah in 2013. “Love recognizes no barriers. It jumps hurdles, leaps fences, penetrates walls to arrive at its destination full of hope," Dr.

Videos

1. It Really Rocked Me from Maya Angelou
(The Andrew Goodman Foundation)
2. Maya Angelou: I'm a Rainbow in Somebody's Cloud
(Children's Defense Fund)
3. Dr. Maya Angelou In Conversation with Dr. Johnnetta B. Cole - National Portrait Gallery
(National Portrait Gallery)
4. Dr. Maya Angelou Gives Commemorative Poem - 2010 National Urban League Conference
(National Urban League)
5. Interview with Maya Angelou for "The Great Depression"
(wufilmarchives)
6. The Story About Maya Angelou that you have never heard in her own words.
(Felix Augustine)

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