Demand for monkeypox vaccine rises with case counts, but supply remains low | CNN (2022)

03:15 - Source: CNN

Man with monkeypox shares what it was like to contract the virus

CNN

The number of monkeypox vaccine doses distributed across the United States has more than tripled since last week, according to the US Department of Health and Human Services, but supply falls far short of demand – and short of the levels that experts say will be needed to control the outbreak.

Michael Austin Nicolo, a bartender in New York City, is one of more than a thousand people in the US who have been diagnosed with the virus this year. He’s also one of many more who have struggled to find an available vaccine.

(Video) Monkeypox vaccine demand outweighing supply as cases climb

“I just first heard about monkeypox like everybody else, through the news, social media, the grapevine, and how it was becoming something we need to be worried about and how it was predominantly affecting gay men or men who have sex with men,” Nicolo said.

It was enough to send him in search of more information on how to protect himself.

“At the time, there was little resources on finding the vaccine,” he said.

“I had two friends reach out with links, and we clicked on them, and they are already completely like – they were gone immediately. There was no access to anything,” he said.

“We just kind of kept an eye on the links and kept on living our lives. And then after Pride weekend is when I started to show symptoms of it – and that was too late.”

The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that more than 1.5 million men who have sex with men are eligible for the monkeypox vaccine. Although monkeypox is not a sexually transmitted disease, it spreads through skin-to-skin contact and in this outbreak, has mostly been spreading among men who have sex with men.

More than 132,000 doses of the Jynneos vaccine – a two-dose regimen manufactured by Bavarian Nordic – have been pulled from the national strategic stockpile and distributed nationwide, according to HHS data, but it hasn’t been enough to meet demand.

“We got an allotment of 200 vaccines, and the appointments for that went in about an hour and a half,” said Dr. David Holland, chief clinical officer of the Fulton County, Georgia, Board of Health.

The CDC says decisions about how to allocate the limited vaccine supply are based equally on the number of cases and the population at risk in a specific area.

(Video) Man with monkeypox shares what it was like to contract the virus

The Jynneos vaccine is available now for people at high risk of exposure: those who have been identified as close contacts of someone who has been diagnosed with monkeypox, those who have had sex with a partner diagnosed with monkeypox within the past 14 days, and those who have had multiple sex partners in the past 14 days in an area with monkeypox spread, according to the CDC.

As more vaccines become available, the agency will continue to evaluate the distribution strategy, a spokesperson said.

The District of Columbia has received the most vaccines per capita, by far, and the city has many more confirmed cases per capita than any state.

But as of Wednesday, two states with confirmed cases – New Mexico and South Dakota – have yet to receive any doses.

After DC, New York has received the most vaccine doses per capita: more than three times the US average. About three-quarters of the state’s supply went to New York City.

In a letter on Tuesday, New York Mayor Eric Adams urged the Biden administration to increase the vaccine allocation, calling his city an “epicenter” of the virus in the US.

White House Covid-19 Response Coordinator Dr. Ashish Jha said Wednesday that additional monkeypox vaccine doses will be arriving within weeks from a plant in Denmark.

“The issue is, we need to get more vaccines out there,” he said.

“We are incredibly focused on making sure that vaccine doses get to the United States and get out to places like New York City. Do we wish we had more doses? Of course. We had a stockpile, and what we need is more. We are getting more.”

(Video) Monkeypox Outbreak: Epidemiology, Testing, Treatment, and Vaccination

Dr. Carlos del Rio, executive associate dean at Emory University School of Medicine, says “the problem is, we simply don’t have enough vaccine. So we’re trying to play catch-up.”

There are also other issues to be considered, he said.

“I think the challenge is that we need to make sure that the vaccine doesn’t go just to the people that are savvy and can get it quickly. We don’t want the vaccine only to go to white wealthy individuals.”

A full course of the Jynneos vaccine, as approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, requires two doses given four weeks apart. But some experts say that one dose might be enough for now – and that delaying second doses might be a way to address the discrepancy between supply and demand.

In his letter, Adams called for the administration to “consider alternative vaccine schedules, utilizing a longer interval between the first and second dose, that would allow more of the immediately available vaccine to be used for first doses.”

Bavarian Nordic CEO Paul Chaplin told Science in early July that “There are a lot of data to support a single shot.”

Chaplin said the second dose could be given two years later and still achieve the same immune response as the standard schedule, so countries have a long time to provide second shots if they decide to use single shots for now.

Health experts say providers are not expected to hold back doses right now.

“From what we’ve been told, it’s: Give the doses you have, and in your later allocations, there’ll be additional doses that will cover second doses,” said Claire Hannan, executive director of the Association of Immunization Managers.

If the virus isn’t contained as soon as possible, health officials fear, it could spread beyond the population groups that are now at high risk.

(Video) June 23, 2022 ACIP Meeting - Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine & Monkeypox Informational Session

Janet Hamilton, executive director of the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, says the US must get past a vaccine strategy focused on high-risk post-exposure because “there is no vaccine-preventable disease that exists that can be controlled solely post-exposure when there is no prior immunity.”

Monkeypox is endemic in parts of Africa, but it is essentially a new disease to the US, and there is no immunity built up in the population.

“Everyone is susceptible at this point in time,” Hamilton said. “There’s no way we will ever be able to control this disease in a completely susceptible population without a pre-exposure vaccine strategy.”

In the meantime, people affected by the virus say they need other resources, as well. The Biden administration has moved to expand testing, with the CDC announcing a collaboration with five private companies to double the nation’s testing capacity. Some of those companies have already begun offering testing. But that didn’t happen soon enough for some.

Nicolo said that when he first went to his doctor with monkeypox symptoms, they took a sample to test – but he learned days later that it had been discarded, untested.

Two days after that visit, his symptoms worsened, and he returned to the doctor. The second sample tested positive.

Christian Redondo, a graduate student in Atlanta, noticed a sore and called his local board of health, which said it wasn’t doing testing and referred him to his primary care doctor.

His primary care doctor told him to go to the emergency room to get tested, but Redondo was able to contact a friend at his county health department who said yes, in fact, he would need to go there for a test.

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(Video) Clinics are struggling to cope with monkeypox, health experts say

“Then, I was in the waiting room for, I don’t know, something like four or five hours. It was a very long time. And when I was asking them about it, they said they had to wait for permission from the CDC to even test me for monkeypox,” he said.

Testing is necessary to prevent further cases and learn more about the full scope of the outbreak.

“I think one of the challenges that we have is that we’re simply not doing enough testing, so there probably are much more cases than we actually are currently registering,” Emory’s del Rio said.

FAQs

Is there a monkey pox vaccine available? ›

The JYNNEOS vaccine is approved for prevention of smallpox and monkeypox. It is the primary vaccine being used during this outbreak in the U.S. The ACAM2000 vaccine is an alternative to JYNNEOS.

Who manufactures monkeypox vaccine? ›

Since 2003, Bavarian Nordic has worked with the US government on the development, manufacturing and supply of the non-replicating smallpox vaccine.

Does the smallpox vaccine prevent monkeypox? ›

The short answer is yes. According to the CDC, monkeypox is closely related to the virus that causes smallpox. Both the CDC and the WHO have published data showing that the smallpox vaccine is 85% effective in preventing monkeypox infection.

How many cases does monkeypox have? ›

In total, the U.S. has reported more than 25,000 cases since the beginning of May. The total worldwide exceeds 67,000.

How many shots do you need for monkeypox? ›

The JYNNEOS vaccine is a two-dose vaccine, with at least four weeks between doses.

Should I get vaccine for monkeypox? ›

CDC recommends vaccination for people who have been exposed to monkeypox virus and people who may be more likely to get monkeypox. Learn more about who should get vaccinated. There are currently two vaccines (JYNNEOS and ACAM2000) that can be used to prevent monkeypox.

Is monkeypox vaccine FDA approved? ›

JYNNEOS Vaccine

JYNNEOS is the only vaccine that is FDA-approved for the prevention of monkeypox disease. JYNNEOS is also approved for the prevention of smallpox disease.

What companies treat monkeypox? ›

These 3 Companies Are Taking on Monkeypox
  • Bavarian Nordic is the sole producer of an approved monkeypox vaccine.
  • Siga Technologies has secured multiple contracts for its approved antiviral medication.
  • Quest Diagnostics can run more monkeypox tests than any other company right now.
4 Aug 2022

What country is monkeypox from? ›

Monkeypox virus, a zoonotic orthopox DNA virus related to the virus that causes smallpox, was first described in humans in 1970 in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire).

When did we stop vaccinating for smallpox? ›

In addition, the vaccine was proven to prevent or substantially lessen infection when given within a few days after a person was exposed to the variola virus. Routine smallpox vaccination among the American public stopped in 1972 after the disease was eradicated in the United States.

How long is smallpox vaccine effective against monkeypox? ›

“Smallpox vaccination can protect you at about 85% from monkeypox infection for about three to five years,” she says. “After that time, its ability to protect you against infection decreases, but experts believe it would still protect against severe illness.”

Does the smallpox vaccine last a lifetime? ›

Length of Protection

Smallpox vaccination provides full immunity for 3 to 5 years and decreasing immunity thereafter. If a person is vaccinated again later, immunity lasts even longer. Historically, the vaccine has been effective in preventing smallpox infection in 95% of those vaccinated.

What state has the most monkeypox cases? ›

As of August 22, monkeypox has spread to all 50 states in the United States, as well as Washington, D.C., and Puerto Rico. The United States has the highest number of monkeypox cases in the world. California has the highest number of monkeypox cases in the United States.

Does monkeypox have a cure? ›

There are no treatments specifically for monkeypox. But because the viruses that cause monkeypox and smallpox are similar, antiviral drugs developed to protect against smallpox may be used to treat monkeypox effectively.

What states have monkeypox cases 2022? ›

2022 U.S. Map & Case Count
LocationCases
Nevada264
New Hampshire29
New Jersey701
New Mexico40
48 more rows
22 Sept 2022

How many deaths has monkeypox caused? ›

The global monkeypox outbreak has caused some deaths, but the death rate is lower than expected from historical data — and scientists are breathing a cautious sigh of relief. Out of more than 57,000 people confirmed to have had monkeypox infections, at least 22 have died, representing a death rate of about 0.04%.

How long does it take to get rid of monkeypox? ›

Most people recover from monkeypox within two to four weeks. Is monkeypox dangerous? Monkeypox can be serious, but most people recover fully. In most cases, monkeypox will resolve on its own without specific treatment after two to four weeks.

How long does it take to get over monkeypox? ›

The illness typically lasts 2-4 weeks. If You Have a New or Unexplained Rash or Other Symptoms... Avoid close contact, including sex or being intimate with anyone, until you have been checked out by a healthcare provider.

What is the prevention of monkeypox? ›

Monkeypox Prevention Steps. Avoid close, skin-to-skin contact with people who have a rash that looks like monkeypox. Do not touch the rash or scabs of a person with monkeypox. Do not kiss, hug, cuddle or have sex with someone with monkeypox.

What is the age for monkeypox vaccine? ›

JYNNEOS is approved for the prevention of monkeypox disease in individuals 18 years of age and older at high risk for monkeypox infection.

How do hospitals test for monkeypox? ›

Due to the sensitivity and accuracy of this technique, PCR is the preferred laboratory test for monkeypox diagnosis. According to WHO, samples of fluid collected from pustules or dry crust from scabbed lesions are considered optimal diagnostic samples.

What vaccine protects against monkeypox? ›

JYNNEOS, a vaccine for protection against smallpox and monkeypox, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2019, using evidence that the vaccine produced the same immune response as an older smallpox vaccine, ACAM2000.

Where is the Monkey Pox vaccine manufactured? ›

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) will provide approximately $11 million to support the first U.S.-based fill and finish manufacturing of JYNNEOS – a vaccine approved to prevent smallpox and monkeypox – at Grand River Aseptic Manufacturing (GRAM) in Grand Rapids, Michigan.

What companies are working on monkeypox vaccines? ›

Bavarian Nordic has secured a contract with an unnamed European country to supply its smallpox vaccine, called Imvanex in Europe, in response to the emergence of monkeypox cases, the Danish company said Thursday.

Can dogs get monkeypox? ›

Transmission has occurred from persons with monkeypox to their pet dog while isolating at home. Signs of monkeypox in dogs includes development of a new rash, which to-date have been located on the abdomen and anus. Do not euthanize pets with suspected monkeypox unless directed by a veterinarian.

What country has the most monkey pox cases? ›

1. United States of America (6,616) More than a quarter of the Monkeypox cases have been reported from New York, where the disease has been declared a public health threat by New York governor Kathy Hochul. With over 6,000 cases, the US tops the list of countries with the most affected.

When did the 2022 monkeypox outbreak start? ›

An ongoing outbreak of monkeypox, a viral disease, was confirmed in May 2022. The initial cluster of cases was found in the United Kingdom, where the first case was detected in London on 6 May 2022 in a patient with a recent travel history from Nigeria (where the disease is endemic).

Why did the polio vaccine leave a scar? ›

The body's immune system reacts to the live virus in the vaccination by creating a defense that pushes the virus out. It is this reaction that leads to the scarring. As the body fights the infection, a scab begins to form. The scab may ooze and feel itchy and tight.

Why do we no longer vaccinate for smallpox? ›

Vaccines Recommended for Travel and Some Specific Groups

After smallpox was eliminated from the world, routine vaccination against smallpox among the general public was stopped because it was no longer needed.

What countries require smallpox vaccine? ›

All the countries of the world except Chad, in Africa, have advised WHO that an International Certificate of Vaccination against Smallpox is no longer required from any traveler.
...
References
  • WHO. Smallpox vaccination certificates. ...
  • ACIP. Smallpox vaccine. ...
  • California Department of Health Services.

Can you still spread smallpox if vaccinated? ›

Is it possible for people to get smallpox from the vaccination? No. The smallpox vaccine does not contain smallpox virus and cannot spread or cause smallpox.

Can you get monkeypox if you had smallpox vaccine as a child? ›

Vaccine Effectiveness

Because Monkeypox virus is closely related to the virus that causes smallpox, the smallpox vaccine can protect people from getting monkeypox. Past data from Africa suggests that the smallpox vaccine is at least 85% effective in preventing monkeypox.

What vaccine left a scar on your arm? ›

Many foreign-born persons have received the bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine for TB disease. This vaccine is administered at birth in many countries outside of the U.S. to prevent childhood tuberculous meningitis and miliary disease. BCG leaves a scar like the smallpox vaccine.

How long do polio vaccines last? ›

However, adults who completed their polio vaccination series as children and are at higher risk for polio exposure can receive one lifetime IPV booster.

Can you have a natural immunity to smallpox? ›

Unfortunately, this proved to be incorrect. It is now clear that immunity wanes over time. Exactly how long the vaccine confers protection, however, is difficult to assess. Immunity to smallpox is believed to rest on the development of neutralizing antibodies, levels of which decline five to 10 years after vaccination.

Was the smallpox vaccine required for school? ›

1900s. Many U.S. states require children to have vaccines, such as the smallpox vaccine, before going to school for the first time (before kindergarten).

How long does monkeypox live on fabric? ›

Once you have gotten well from MPX and new skin has grown over all your monkeypox sores or spots, you should wipe down and clean your home as thoroughly as you can. The virus can live on surfaces such as bedding for as long as 15 days.

What animals Can you get monkeypox from? ›

Natural host of monkeypox virus

Various animal species have been identified as susceptible to monkeypox virus. This includes rope squirrels, tree squirrels, Gambian pouched rats, dormice, non-human primates and other species.

What does monkeypox rash look like? ›

What Does a Monkeypox Rash Look Like? Chicago's top doctor said the rashes "can look like a blister, like a pimple and can be very painful." "These sores can look like pimples and may be painful or itchy.

Can you get the monkeypox vaccine if you have monkeypox? ›

Vaccination is not recommended for individuals with current monkeypox illness. Persons with monkeypox symptoms who have had close personal contact with someone with known monkeypox in the past 14 days should contact their health care provider.

What happens if you pop a monkeypox blister? ›

Don't lance (pop) or scratch lesions from the rash. This does not speed up recovery and can spread the virus to other parts of the body, increase the chance of spreading the virus to others, and possibly cause the open lesions to become infected by bacteria.

What does first stage of monkeypox look like? ›

What are the stages of the rash? The rash caused by monkeypox is broken into four stages: macular, papular, vesicular and pustular. According to the CDC, the rash starts out as macules, when the lesions first appear as flat areas of discoloured skin. Then they become papules, progressing to raised bumps.

How many states in the US have monkeypox? ›

The CDC had confirmed 24,364 monkeypox cases in 53 states and territories, as of Sept.

How many monkeypox Cases are there in the usa? ›

Monkeypox Global Outbreak Stats

The U.S. has reported the highest number of monkeypox cases, followed by Brazil with 7,445, and Spain with 7,122.

How many cases of monkeypox for kids? ›

Risk of infection is more likely for household members and other close contacts of an infected person. As of August 21st, 17 pediatric cases have been reported in children 0-15 years old and 134 cases have been reported in adolescents/young adults 16 to 20 years old in the United States.

Which countries have monkeypox vaccines? ›

the Imvanex vaccine, used against monkeypox and often referred to as JYNNEOS, is manufactured by only one company: Denmark-based Bavarian Nordic. Global supplies are limited. Africa, where the current outbreak began, is shut out.

Where do you get monkey pox? ›

Monkeypox can spread to anyone through close, personal, often skin-to-skin contact, including: Direct contact with monkeypox rash, scabs, or body fluids from a person with monkeypox. Touching objects, fabrics (clothing, bedding, or towels), and surfaces that have been used by someone with monkeypox.

Is there treatment for monkeypox? ›

There are no treatments specifically for monkeypox. But because the viruses that cause monkeypox and smallpox are similar, antiviral drugs developed to protect against smallpox may be used to treat monkeypox effectively.

Is ACAM2000 available? ›

It has been made available for the prevention of monkeypox disease under an Expanded Access Investigational New Drug application (EA-IND).

How many deaths has monkeypox caused? ›

The global monkeypox outbreak has caused some deaths, but the death rate is lower than expected from historical data — and scientists are breathing a cautious sigh of relief. Out of more than 57,000 people confirmed to have had monkeypox infections, at least 22 have died, representing a death rate of about 0.04%.

Are monkeypox painful? ›

Monkeypox symptoms

The rash can initially look like pimples or blisters and may be painful or itchy.

Can dogs get monkeypox? ›

Transmission has occurred from persons with monkeypox to their pet dog while isolating at home. Signs of monkeypox in dogs includes development of a new rash, which to-date have been located on the abdomen and anus. Do not euthanize pets with suspected monkeypox unless directed by a veterinarian.

What kills monkey pox? ›

Objects and surfaces can be cleaned with soap and water and common household disinfectants or a bleach product to kill the monkeypox virus.

Can you get monkeypox from a toilet seat? ›

Researchers who swabbed the rooms for environmental samples found varying degrees of contamination across each surface. Monkeypox viral loads were highest in the patients' bathrooms, particularly on high-touch surfaces such as toilet seats or the control levers of their sink or soap dispenser.

How can you avoid getting monkeypox? ›

Monkeypox Prevention Steps. Avoid close, skin-to-skin contact with people who have a rash that looks like monkeypox. Do not touch the rash or scabs of a person with monkeypox. Do not kiss, hug, cuddle or have sex with someone with monkeypox.

How long does it take to get rid of monkeypox? ›

Most people recover from monkeypox within two to four weeks. Is monkeypox dangerous? Monkeypox can be serious, but most people recover fully. In most cases, monkeypox will resolve on its own without specific treatment after two to four weeks.

Can you get the monkeypox vaccine if you have monkeypox? ›

Vaccination is not recommended for individuals with current monkeypox illness. Persons with monkeypox symptoms who have had close personal contact with someone with known monkeypox in the past 14 days should contact their health care provider.

How long does it take to see monkeypox after exposure? ›

Incubation Period: Infection with monkeypox virus begins with an incubation period where the person does not have symptoms and may feel fine. The incubation period is roughly 1-2 weeks. A person is not contagious during this period. Physicians are currently recommended to monitor patients up to 21 days.

Does Medicare cover monkeypox vaccine? ›

Vaccine Cost

The monkeypox vaccines are free. Providers must give you the vaccine regardless of your ability to pay the administration fee. The providers may bill a program or plan that covers the monkeypox vaccine administration fee (like your private insurance or Medicare/Medicaid).

Why is the smallpox vaccine no longer given? ›

After smallpox was eliminated from the world, routine vaccination against smallpox among the general public was stopped because it was no longer needed.

Is PCV20 available? ›

PCV20 was licensed in 2021 for people age 18 years and older. CDC recommends it as an option for pneumococcal disease prevention in adults age 19 years or older who have not previously received a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. If PCV20 is given, no further pneumococcal vaccination is recommended.

Videos

1. Additional monkeypox vaccines to be released as outbreak spreads
(NewsChannel 5)
2. Update on COVID-19 and monkeypox in Mecklenburg County, NC
(WCNC)
3. Sorting out the latest information on the monkeypox outbreak
(CBS Chicago)
4. LGBTQ+ clinic seeing ‘overwhelming’ demand for monkeypox vaccine
(WPRI)
5. September 1, 2022 ACIP Meeting - Evidence to recommendation Framework; COVID-19 Vaccination Guidance
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC))
6. News Conference: New Mexico health leaders update COVID, monkeypox trends (Sept. 2022)
(KRQE)

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